Sintesi delle decisioni della COP28 sul Global stocktake ("Rivisitazione complessiva"    
    II testo principale generale della COP28 di Dubai contiene i seguenti punti principali:    

The Paris Agreement has driven near-universal climate action by setting
goals and sending signals to the world regarding the urgency of responding to the climate

despite overall progress on mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation and support, Parties are not yet collectively on track towards achieving the purpose of the Paris Agreement and its long-term goals;

the impacts of climate change will be much lower at the temperature increase of 1.5 °C compared with 2 °C and resolves to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C;

Expresses serious concern that 2023 is set to be the warmest year on record

human activities, principally through emissions of greenhouse gases, have unequivocally caused global warming of about 1.1 °C;

impacts from climate change are rapidly accelerating, and emphasizes the need for urgent action and support to keep the 1.5 °C goal within reach and to address the climate crisis in this critical decade;

Commits to accelerate action in this critical decade

sustainable and just solutions to the climate crisis must be founded on meaningful and effective social dialogue and participation of all stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples, local communities and governments, women, and youth and children, and notes that the global transition to low emissions and climate-resilient development provides opportunities and challenges for sustainable development and poverty eradication;

10. Underlines that just transitions can support more robust and equitable mitigation
outcomes, with tailored approaches addressing different contexts;

That feasible, effective and low-cost mitigation options are already available
in all sectors to keep 1.5 °C within reach in this critical decade with the necessary cooperation on technologies and support;

mitigation efforts embedded within the wider development context can increase the pace, depth and breadth of emissions reductions, as well as that policies that shift development pathways towards sustainability can broaden the portfolio of available
mitigation responses and enable the pursuit of synergies with development objectives;
(b) That both adaptation and mitigation financing would need to increase
manyfold, and that there is sufficient global capital to close the global investment gap but
there are barriers to redirecting capital to climate action, and that Governments through public funding and clear signals to investors are key in reducing these barriers and investors, central banks and financial regulators can also play their part;

developed countries must reduce emissions by 25–40 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020, which was not achieved

the 87 per cent of the global economy in terms of share of gross domestic product is covered by targets for climate neutrality, carbon neutrality, greenhouse gas neutrality or net zero emissions, which provides the possibility of achieving a temperature increase below 2 °C when taking into account the full implementation of those strategies;


Notes with concern the findings in the latest version of the synthesis report on nationally determined contributions that implementation of current nationally determined contributions would reduce emissions on average by 2 per cent compared with the 2019 level by 2030 and that significantly greater emission reductions are required to align with global greenhouse gas emission trajectories in line with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement and recognizes the urgent need to address this gap;

policies implemented by the end of 2020 are projected to result in higher global greenhouse gas emissions than those implied by the nationally determined contributions, indicating an implementation gap, and resolves to take action to urgently address this gap;

despite progress, global greenhouse gas emissions trajectories are not yet in line with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, and that there is a rapidly narrowing window for raising ambition and implementing existing commitments in order to achieve it;

Expresses concern that the carbon budget consistent with achieving the Paris
Agreement temperature goal is now small and being rapidly depleted and acknowledges that
historical cumulative net carbon dioxide emissions already account for about four fifths of
the total carbon budget for a 50 per cent probability of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C;

[IPCC models show that] global greenhouse gas emissions are projected to peak between 2020 and at the latest before 2025 in global modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5 °C with no or limited overshoot and in those that limit warming to 2 °C and assume immediate action,

limiting global warming to 1.5 °C with no or limited overshoot requires deep, rapid and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions of 43 per cent by 2030 and 60 per cent by 2035 relative to the 2019 level and reaching net zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2050;

calls on Parties to contribute to the following global efforts, in a nationally determined manner:

(a) Tripling renewable energy capacity globally and doubling the global average
annual rate of energy efficiency improvements by 2030;
(b) Accelerating efforts towards the phase-down of unabated coal power;
(c) Accelerating efforts globally towards net zero emission energy systems,
utilizing zero- and low-carbon fuels well before or by around mid-century;
(d) Transitioning away from fossil fuels in energy systems, in a just, orderly and
equitable manner, accelerating action in this critical decade, so as to achieve net zero by 205 in keeping with the science;
(e) Accelerating zero- and low-emission technologies, including, inter alia,
renewables, nuclear, abatement and removal technologies such as carbon capture and
utilization and storage, particularly in hard-to-abate sectors, and low-carbon hydrogen
(f) Accelerating and substantially reducing non-carbon-dioxide emissions globally, including in particular methane emissions by 2030;
(g) Accelerating the reduction of emissions from road transport on a range of pathways, including through development of infrastructure and rapid deployment of zeroand low-emission vehicles;
(h) Phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that do not address energy poverty
or just transitions, as soon as possible;

Notes the importance of transitioning to sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns
of consumption and production in efforts to address climate change, including through
circular economy approaches, and encourages efforts in this regard;


Encourages the implementation of integrated, multi-sectoral solutions, such as landuse management, sustainable agriculture, resilient food systems, nature-based solutions and
ecosystem-based approaches, and protecting, conserving and restoring nature and
ecosystems, including forests, mountains and other terrestrial and marine and coastal
ecosystems, which may offer economic, social and environmental benefits such as improved
resilience and well-being, and that adaptation can contribute to mitigating impacts and losses,
as part of a country-driven gender-responsive and participatory approach, building on the
best available science as well as Indigenous Peoples’ knowledge and local knowledge

Notes that ecosystem-based approaches, including ocean-based adaptation and
resilience measures, as well as in mountain regions, can reduce a range of climate change
risks and provide multiple co-benefits;


In particolare, l'impegno collettivo a triplicare la potenza totale mondiale delle rinnovabili entro il 2030, il cui testo integrale è qui, è stato supportato da circa 130 paesi

2. Andorra
3. Angola
4. Antigua and Barbuda
5. Argentina
6. Armenia
7. Australia
8. Austria
9. Azerbaijan
10. Bahamas (the)
11. Bangladesh
12. Barbados
13. Belgium
14. Belize
15. Benin
16. Bhutan
17. Bosnia Herzegovina
18. Brazil
19. Brunei Darussalam
20. Bulgaria
21. Burkina Faso
22. Burundi
23. Canada
24. Chad
25. Chile
26. Colombia
27. Comoros (the)
28. Costa Rica
29. Cote d'Ivoire
30. Croatia
31. Cuba
32. Cyprus
33. Czechia
34. Denmark
35. Dominican Republic (the)
36. El Salvador
37. Estonia
38. Eswatini
39. Ethiopia
40. Fiji
41. European Union
42. Finland
43. France
44. Gambia (the)
45. Georgia
46. Germany
47. Ghana
48. Greece
49. Grenada
50. Guatemala
51. Guinea
52. Hungary
53. Iceland
54. Ireland
55. Italy
56. Jamaica
57. Japan
58. Jordan
59. Kenya
60. Kiribati
61. Kosovo
62. Kyrgyzstan
63. Latvia
64. Lebanon
65. Lesotho
66. Liechtenstein
67. Lithuania
68. Luxembourg
69. Malawi
70. Malaysia
71. Maldives
72. Mali
73. Malta
74. Mexico
75. Micronesia
76. Moldova
77. Monaco
78. Montenegro
79. Morocco
80. Mozambique
81. Namibia
82. Nauru
83. Netherlands
84. New Zealand
85. Nicaragua
86. Nigeria
87. North Macedonia
88. Norway
89. Oman
90. Papua New Guinea
91. Paraguay
92. Poland
93. Portugal
94. Romania
95. Rwanda
96. San Marino
97. Senegal
98. Serbia
99. Seychelles
100. Sierra Leone
101. Singapore
102. Slovakia
103. Slovenia
104. Somalia
105. Republic of Korea (ROK)
106. Spain
107. Sweden
108. Switzerland
109. Syria
110. Tajikistan
111. Thailand
112. Togo
113. Tunisia
114. UAE
115. Ukraine
116. United Kingdom
117. United States of America
118. Uruguay
119. Uzbekistan
120. Vanuatu
121. Yemen
122. Zambia
123. Zimbabwe




If countries continue adding renewable capacity at the same scale recorded in 2023, capacity will more than double by the end of the decade. Achieving the new COP28 goal of tripling capacity would require increasing annual additions from 500 gigawatts in 2023 to around 1,500 in 2030 — an annual growth rate of 17 percent.

This puts the COP28 target well within reach, as renewable capacity grew by 17 percent annually on average between 2016 and 2023, according to analysis by think tank Ember.




Per quanto riguarda la deforestazione, la decisione è di procedere a "enhanced efforts towards halting and reversing deforestation and forest degradation by 2030",

    Per l'implementazione dei questo impegno: Notes the need for enhanced support and investment, including through financial resources, technology transfer and capacity-building, for efforts towards halting and reversing deforestation and forest degradation by 2030 in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in accordance with Article 5 of the Paris Agreement, including through results-based payments for policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches;
    Per una panoramica degli impegni attuali si veda la piattaforma ufficiale REDD+    


In this context, ‘unabated fossil fuels’ refers to fossil fuels produced and used without interventions that substantially reduce the amount of GHG emitted throughout the life cycle; for example, capturing 90% or more CO2 from power plants, or 50-80% of fugitive methane emissions from energy supply. AR6 Synthesis Report Climate Change 2023, IPCC .

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